In order to better familiarize yourself with the notion of COMMONS, and in particular of COMMONS called Universal and Natural and also called Physical COMMONS, here is a list, which is not intended to be exhaustive, of some examples of these types of COMMONS.
Let’s just start by reminding you that:
- Natural COMMONS are all COMMONS that are based on a natural resource, abundant or not, on Earth or elsewhere.
- The notion of Universal means, either a Common Good present throughout the Earth (Air for example). Or a Common Good whose benefits of exploitation must be shared by all. (i.e Gold Mine underwater outside the Territorial Waters)
Here is therefore, on the basis of these two criteria, a beginning of the list of Universal Physical COMMONS:
– All Raw Mineral Materials in the broad sense, initially located outside Territorial Waters. Then when the age of the Commons is better established, all the Raw Material Resources on Earth will be considered as belonging to all of Humanity. Including those located in Countries or Territorial Waters (This does not mean that the inhabitants of the country where the Resource is located cannot receive more (money) than the inhabitants of other countries. Once again, COMMONS are not necessarily an egalitarian distribution).
– All forms of oil (liquid, bitumen,…) and Gas (liquid, shale,…) outside the Territorial Waters initially as seen above. Parks, Reserves and biological and ecological preservation areas, such as what Australia’s Great Barrier Reef or the Amazon could be.
– Mountains that are symbolic for Human Culture such as Mount Everest, Mont Blanc, Elbrusz, Mount Ararat, Sinai, Kilimanjaro, Aconcagua, Denali, Puncak Jaya, Mount Kosciuszko to name but the highest and most culturally known. But many other Mountains, or hills, have cultural significance or are remarkable beauties to add to the list of COMMONS.
– Important Lakes and Rivers such as the Nile or the Amazon.
P.S 0 Agricultural Resources (fields, orchards, etc…) are not among these types of Universal Goods.
P.S.1 It should be noted that for certain types of Common Goods, not all humanity is yet ready to admit the relevance of this approach. Especially for Land Ownership (see the failure of Henry George and his “Single Tax“). But this can change a lot over time!
P.S.2: There are Universal COMMONS that also have a Physical base, a raw material base but which have been processed by one or more people. In this case, they are Universal CULTURAL COMMONS. The most famous example of this type is the Mona Lisa in the Louvre, which can be considered as a cultural COMMONS belonging to the whole of humanity. This does not mean that all Humanity must “love” the painting and make it its favorite: -) [There are other paintings by Leonardo da Vinci that are more emotionally successful. For example, the Lady with an Ermine, which can be considered the first portrait of a modern type in Western painting].