Wooden footbridge over river in dutch countryside near Groningen under amazing dark sunset during a sunday afternoon stroll

What are Natural COMMONS

In order to better familiarize yourself with the notion of COMMONS, and in particular of COMMONS called Universal and Natural and also called Physical COMMONS, here is a short presentation, which is not intended to be exhaustive, of what are Natural COMMONS.

  1. Natural COMMONS are all COMMONS that are based on a natural resource, abundant or not, on Earth or elsewhere.
  2. The notion of Universal means, either a Common Good present throughout the Earth (Air for example). Or a Common Good whose benefits of exploitation must be shared by all. (i.e Gold Mine underwater outside the Territorial Waters)

Here is therefore, on the basis of these two criteria, a beginning of the list of Universal Physical COMMONS:
– Air
– Water
– All Raw Mineral Materials in the broad sense, initially located outside Territorial Waters.
– All forms of oil (liquid, bitumen,…) and Gas (liquid, shale,…) outside the Territorial Waters initially as seen above. Parks, Reserves and biological and ecological preservation areas, such as what Australia’s Great Barrier Reef or the Amazon could be.
– Mountains that are symbolic for Human Culture such as Mount Everest, Mont Blanc, Elbrusz, Mount Ararat, Sinai, Kilimanjaro, Aconcagua, Denali, Puncak Jaya, Mount Kosciuszko to name but the highest and most culturally known. But many other Mountains, or hills, have cultural significance or are remarkable beauties to add to the list of COMMONS.
– Important Lakes and Rivers such as the Nile or the Amazon.

P.S 0 Agricultural Resources (fields, orchards, etc…) are not among these types of Universal Goods.

Group of people around the world

INTERNET is definitely a New COMMONS. A Digital type.

To better understand what a new Common Good and more particularly a digital good is, the best example to illustrate this point is to talk about the Internet. A COMMON is something that benefits, fairly (see point 3 below), those who can access it. In the past, COMMONS were more or less limited to local areas. And mainly to the exploitation of natural resources.

Today, when a Common Good, a COMMONS, is by itself, Universal, it can, potentially, benefit everyone. This is the great strength of the Digital Commons. By their nature, they can be profitable and enjoyable for the greatest number of people. And the INTERNET is a new COMMON GOOD. We must be aware of this. We must realize and understand that by setting and sharing universally accepted Standards, we create not only a much larger one, but new Goods / Services and Enterprises (The Internet Eco-System with GAFA and BATX). These norms (and not only standards), which have generated digital codings and vice versa, are the result of years of work and research carried out by people, mainly funded (see French Cyclades initiative), initially by the American Administration (through public funds distributed via the Army and then to universities). This Administrative entity has given time and resources to create these new COMMON Assets. It required human energy, inventiveness. It was difficult. It was a pioneering process. But, in the end, she succeeded. And now, any human can enjoy the Internet. What an evolution compared to previous years!

It is the strength of COMMONS to have both the collective level of the Community in which it is exercised developed. And also, directly, the level of prosperity of the individuals who are in this Community.

Then we can remember that:

COMMUNICATIONS are capable of creating and bringing an incredible source of prosperity to Humanity.
Let us become aware of “wealth” in all its forms, human, social, technological, financial etc…. brought by the Digital COMMONS that is the Internet through the gigantic Eco-System that it represents (From Developer- Local Website Designer to GAFAM and BATX).
What will be the next great Digital (or physical) COMMON Goods that we will create together?
What new Eco-Systems can we create? Both gigantic in economic size and on a human scale?
COMMUNICATIONS are based on equity of access. This does not mean equality. Potentially, we can find this quite simply in the so-called developed countries, with access to the Internet. Potentially, any individual with access to the Internet can access it as much as they wish. That’s the fair game. The potentials are the same for all. However, in addition to the fact that each person can spend as much time as they want, from 0 to, in theory, 24 hours a day; and that some can therefore spend more time than others; it is especially how they will use the Internet Resource that will make the difference. Some will choose to watch Cat Videos all day long[Grumpy Cat ==> Digital Regrets], others will prefer to learn about the latest science hypotheses. But at the beginning everyone has the same potential. This is what also characterizes COMMONS, or at least the New COMMONS. It is the individual action of each Member of the Community that creates for itself its own harvest, proportional to the exploitation of the Common Resource.
The Internet COMMONS, like all Digital COMMONS, has absolutely (or almost no) shortage problems. The “consumption” of a good from the COMMONS Internet Resource, unlike the consumption of a fish in a Common Lake, does not lead to its disappearance. Viewing a Video on the Internet does not prevent others from seeing it as well (Except when it is the exception to the rule, namely the principle of the application itself is not to allow the duration in time of the resource being viewed, see Snap Chat). And even at the same time. See the article on the subject.

Article Initiated on 20/03/2019.
Update on 28/05/2019


Miami Florida USA

1 example of a New National COMMONS: Country Brand Image via TV Series. And how to develop it.


What image do soap operas give to a country?

The brand image is a National COMMONS. Yes!

The approach to COMMONS of collective goods allows us to better understand their importance for a Community. And therefore to be able to promote and enhance them in order to increase and improve the share, whether material or immaterial, that each inhabitant of the Community (As a country) receives.

An example of awareness given by this approach by COMMONS is the brand image of a country. If we consider it as a Common Good, we can see better the impact that this COMMONS has on the daily lives of the inhabitants of the Community. Because this image determines the ECONOMIC value of the territory in which the Community is located. That the brand image of the territory be positive and the territory will be well considered.

Either for the purchase of its goods and services. Either to invest in this Territory. The brand image, (what a territory tells us), has very great importance in terms of the global economic positioning of each country. The more a territory is well considered, the more these activities (services, products) will be valued in the eyes of potential buyers. Even if they are not necessarily the cheapest items.

And by previously using the word “tells”, we put our finger on the crux of the problem. We’re going to tell a story. Often embellish it. And sometimes even invent it. Like making us believe that anyone can go to the United States to a hospital to be treated, within a minute, his sick liver without previously having sold one of his own kidneys to pay the future hospitalization bill! (See Grey’s Anatomy. Care in the USA is like the Hospital in France. No one pays according to the US Soaps! ). This is a good Story Telling. An Art that Hollywood has mastered to the best of its ability since the 1920s (with the famous Westerns in particular[To see on this point this excellent drawing:-) ],

Westerns filmed by good directors but who try to make us think of cow-keeper adventures, with guns, as Builders of magnificent Civilization! A very beautiful scam to make us forget that in 80 years, apart from the Gold Rush, where strangely enough {and not so much because it would have ended up demonstrating the great illusion that this Gold Rush was for many} there has been little film on the subject, and the massacre of indigenous Indian tribes who, until very recently, were still big bad guys, nothing structural and innovative has happened in the Wild West of the USA. Nothing of nothing. And this until the beginning of Silicon Valley or rather Orange Valley when a son decided to join his mother who had left for California for health reasons.

Because even if currently many US soap operas are shot in Canada for tax reasons, uh artistic of course, what is being promoted is not Vancouver or Quebec. It’s California or Washington State. It is always the American Way of Life, implicit or explicit, that is presented and highlighted. Hence this attraction on the minds of many people who either want to invest or come to live in the USA or California. Brand image is part of Soft Power and the USA has been organizing it for more than a century.

Thus the control or orientation of this Story Telling, mainly, first from the Cinema and now from the soap operas, especially now where viewing in streaming mode is crucial for the brand image of a Territory. And as a result, it must be organized. After defining its “History”, each country must promote itself through “Opus” in the broadest sense. This does not mean that ALL of a country’s productions are at the service of this objective. Artistic freedom, including of course the freedom to speak of ugly episodes in one’s community, must always prevail. But each country must “produce” its own story or stories.

But then how to talk about it?


01.Which production and creation actors?

Because of the potential benefits to each of the Community’s members, which go beyond the financial interest of short-term profitability, Government, State, and National agencies are often in the best position to carry out these actions.

The natural carrier of these subjects would thus be France Télévision for France. And the BBC for England. And RAI for Italy. This applies to almost all countries. Excluding the USA where Private Actors are both the actors and beneficiaries of this Soft Power. They therefore naturally carry this objective, often unconsciously for some, of Story Telling for the benefit of Americans and America (First!). And for China, which can rely on the private sector (as in the technological sector) to support its government needs.

I have no ideas, information or intuitions (the author strives to talk only about elements on which he has a beginning of knowledge or experience [which means that he tackles very, very few subjects…]) for the possible carriers of these projects in other major nations such as Russia, Japan, Mexico or Brazil.


There is no ready-made answer on this point. Some countries can promote their languages by shooting directly in them. Others can use English from the beginning. It should be noted that some countries filmed in their native language without knowing that this would have an international impact (See Casa di Papel).

02. which content format?

Undeniably it is the format of the soap opera that is the preferred medium. With its notion of Episodes and Seasons (And also of Ends of Stories). It is the one that is in progress and in fashion all over the world (see Game of Thrones). Especially since Pilot episodes can be made at a lower cost to test the impact of a concept. However, films that have a strong impact can also be used as a reference for a series. Only the financial contributions of a well-made film (Understanding with enough resources for it to be well rendered on screen) is at a level higher than 10 Million Euros. An episode of a soap opera is for a few million.

It is necessary to make oneself the Model of Knowledge which is not to put all one’s eggs in the same basket. And to spread the risks of creation as much as possible by focusing on very different projects. But always at the service, not necessarily exclusive (a little subtlety does not harm), of this national brand image.

04. what type of OPUS?

It must already be confirmed that in this type of exercise, the documentary is not suitable. Not that a country’s brand image does not also pass through its exhibition in documentaries. But a), this emphasis appears more visible to the viewer in a documentary. The unconscious, the secondary effect is not present by nature in this type of format. And b) documentaries are not the most watched type of Shows. They, therefore, remain fiction in the broadest sense. For various reasons (effectiveness of the subject, possible speed of production, style appreciated internationally), we recommend starting with Contemporary Police Fictions, again in the very broad sense (investigations, police interventions, burglaries, smart scams, etc.). Other subjects than Police and/or Contemporaries are possible. But they are more difficult to determine and control. It is better to progress step by step. While giving for the promotion of his/her country a tight schedule of planned evolutions.

5. What should we show?

city of Monaco

a). Known architecture

Any remarkable Architectural element already known internationally in the Territory. With the obligation to show the iconic place or places that constitute the global signature of a country. For example, the Eiffel Tower for France. Or the Trevi Fountain, the Colosseum for Italy. Note that we can mix classical representations of these icons, basically the shot, the view, the framing that everyone knows. And a new perspective, a new angle of view little or not known to the element.

c). Remarkable natural element

Any remarkable Natural element, whether already known or not. These elements are very important for the promotion of the country. Their beauty will constitute an important enhancement of the country.

b). interesting architecture

Any remarkable Architectural element but less known at an international level. The Trocadéro in Paris is a good example. Piazza di Popolo in Roma is another one.

d). unorthodox architecture

Any unusual or mysterious Architectural element. For example, the castle of Tomar in Portugal, which is not yet very well known (Even in English Wikipedia!). Especially with its inner circular part which is not shown to date in the French Wikipedia article. An example of the impact of this type of place is the promotion of Croatia through some of the shoots in the Games of Thrones series.

But also

Line of Brand New Cars

e). infrastructure

Infrastructure but Good quality infrastructure. Yes, even complex or modern railway bridges, viaducts or switches contribute to building a good brand image for the country.

This is a point that is often forgotten because it actually works on the unconscious of the viewer.

To understand it well, imagine watching an episode where 3/4 of the actions take place in traffic jams. What would you think of the country then? Healthy, modern, up-to-date, fast and efficient infrastructures contribute to a good brand image of the country. They must be shown and magnified.

g). factories and production equipment

This is rarely understood, even by American scriptwriters, but showing manufacturing locations and tools, machines, is important for the country’s brand image. It will be in your interest, depending on the targeted brand image, to focus on artisanal creation or on the other side of the spectrum, on ultra-modern products. In any case, the notion of Quality must appear unconsciously on the screen {Let us remember that all the elements that make up a brand image are shown in second-hand mode, in the background, in evocation. They are not the main subject of the filmed action. Otherwise, it is like propaganda with Soviet subtlety from the 20s [1920s for confirmation for some young readers]. They must be seen as elements that shape the “unconscious” of the viewer. They work on his perception in depth without being noticed.}

f). Cars

Between discussions, pursuits, escapes and other adventures, it is often a place of action. What is shown as vehicles is therefore important for the country’s brand image. Between filming a country where three-quarters of the cars look like walking wrecks and a country where almost everyone drives a sports car, the picture is not the same.

As part of this exercise, the idea and ideal are to promote cars belonging to local manufacturers, if only to promote the distribution and sale of these models abroad.

This is not always the case. It is then necessary to be careful with the vehicles filmed. But you don’t have to show only big French or German sedans.

Vivid, original, smart and rare cars can also be shown.

h). Houses

Luxury modern bathroom

The interior of Houses and living spaces is a very good way to promote a country’s brand image.

The internal decoration, the type of object, the type of household appliances, the number of rooms, their surfaces, the surface of the house, the presence of garden, swimming pool, everything is important and must be highlighted with an awareness of this importance.

And last but maybe not least for this point

Well-dressed couple in luxury bedroom interior.

i). Suits and Clothing

The way of dressing, which is not identical between the actors and actresses of the series, is also important. The role of the Costume Designer is already well established in Film.

But it must now also move towards an emphasis on local production or local style. Always by remaining at the service of the country’s brand image and promotion.

Here, the chosen illustration could be used for France or Italy.

j). Characters

And last but not least, the Characters shown in the series.

Their characters, their statures, their way of speaking, their way of moving, their type of beauty [Yes, because in a way everyone is beautiful, and nice too] everything contributes to giving actors and actresses a brand image of the country where the show is located.

6) The declinations

If the series is successful, derivatives of it may be considered. Either what are called sequences (sequel), returns in time (prequel) or parallel adventures of secondary characters (Spin-Off).

For information, not all points are covered in this article. In particular, the Knowledge Model which makes it possible to motivate, select authors in the broadest sense (scriptwriters, Show Runner, Dialogue Writer, Director) to participate as best as possible in promoting a country’s brand image. A brand image that must also result from a Knowledge Model that is specific to each country because it is relative to each country.

In any case, be convinced of the importance of a country’s brand image, whether it is transmitted and amplified by films or soap operas. That is what China has understood very well. Even if the last attempt in 2018 was not successful. But this flop doesn’t matter. Because we must apply the well-known maxim of Boileau: “go back to your work again (100 times!). Sooner or later this type of film promoting the Chinese Communist state will be successful.

It is also this type of promotion of the country that makes the inhabitants proud. With an increase in the pleasure felt by living in the Community, this creates Pride, belonging to a group, with sometimes an increase or rather valuation of real estate (because inflation in real estate prices is one of the possible perverse effects of this emphasis on brand image). Americans’ pride in being Americans comes mainly from the constant repetition of the brand image through US movies and soap operas. Even if since the 1990s, Hollywood’s rosy vision of the USA has no longer been unique and immaculate, the majority of creations carry within them a positive promotion of the USA, the American spirit and the American Way of Life.

And if you don’t like the word brand image or Story Telling, replace them with tourism promotion. It will be almost the same. You will not have in mind all the possible impacts of a brand image but you will at least be aware of a certain part.

Cinema Ticket
Cowboy Standoff low shot

Moreover, since this works well for the USA, we will wonder about the lack of a brand image of Europe as such in this niche. Because in 3 months of the History of Europe, whether in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, the 19th and 20th centuries, there have been many more events than in 80 years of cow-keeping in the West of Pecos (In French). This lack of common discourse is an anomaly, penalizing, for an organization that defines itself as a Community. Because it is not a question of promoting each country, one by one, on a subject specific to that country alone. But to consider new adventures taking place, in the same series, on several territories of Europe.

This awareness will also lead to the emergence of new professions and jobs that will be in charge of enhancing the brand image of their country by participating, helping, controlling, improving the Scenarios but also, more directly, by participating in the shots to check what is shown and in what forms (See the points listed in the section “What should we show?”).

This profession can be called the National Brand Image Catalyst.

It should be noted that if your country does not operate under the COMMONS mode and approach, you will have an even greater need and interest to implement this promotion of your country at the level of World Competition. Not thinking about it, not applying it, is a political mistake in the noble sense of the word political.

Young screenwriter reading the script

a practical example

Finally, would you like an example of what a type of fiction can be in this context of promoting a brand image of the country?
Let’s take France at random [Chance always does things right!].
In relation to the points seen above, we will choose a series based on:

Forensic scientist examining bullet casing

On Police Investigations

This type of story has many advantages in promoting a conscious brand image.

Nice old town France
Luxury House on the French Riviera in Cassis, France

Located in Nice and its hinterland

With very nice cars and houses of the kind seen in the 80s in Miami Vice. Because there is no reason to leave the representation of luxury to American soap operas alone.

To contrast the modern elements of the city, the old city and the surrounding nature.

Nice panorama seen from Mt Boron

Bay of Nice and a Nice Bay!

View on the Sea Front

Nice old town France

Old City of Nice

View from the inland

It will also be necessary to use the Monaco context in certain intrigues (13 miles between the 2 cities!).

Port Hercule in Monaco at sunrise Green Poker Table

With all the usual symbols of the Principality.

Plus, also the Formula 1 Grand Prix.

Portofino village on Ligurian coast, Italy

As well as the notion of a border with Italy.

And his famous Riviera. Even the Cinque Terre.

Highlight luxurious elements such as yachts, cars, suits.

Luxury boat

A Soft Power tool

Modest and reasonable.

Happy friends eating fruits and drinking on a yacht

While highlighting the human and solidarity aspect of the inhabitants

if possible by continuing to highlight the tools previously seen… (Yacht, Cars, Suits)

With the advantage of French life always put forward {All an Art without a doubt!}, food, sun, etc….

Baker putting baguette in paper bag

As in figure skating, all the great compulsory and expected figures will be present!

And the (positive) clichés too 🙂

It will also be necessary to have an International name that sounds good. In this context, the author proposes,


Yachts in the cannes bay at night

If we prefer to place the action in the city of the Festival, we can of course use the now famous

Yes you

Each element shown on the screen will be important.

Everything must be thought out, designed and prepared in advance to promote this National brand image.

Logo France Culture


A post on the New Chinese Soft Power in Africa. http://theconversation.com/how-media-and-film-can-help-china-grow-its-soft-power-in-africa-97401

Great idea concept with crumpled colorful paper and light bulb

These types of actions, as well as those of Defining a brand image of a country and its main elements to be implemented, are part of the Consulting and Audit Services of the Alpharis’ Circle.


Alchemist of COMMONS

A starry sky without advertising!

The Sky is Ours!

Some COMMONS can be used by everyone.
Some others by none!

One of the Commons of Nature, in addition to air, is also the Sky.
No one can use the Sky, which belongs to all, for his own “needs” (or rather desires or whims…).

However, this is what the Russian company StartRocket would propose at the initiative of this “idea” (?) which would consist in polluting, since there are no other words, visually and spatially the sky belonging to all by Advertisements praising the merits of such or such product and a priori rather sweetened drinks…

You will find the Technical details of this Project in different Press reviews (Although some “articles” on the subject are strangely similar ..).

What is important to us in the context of the Commons is the usual observation that:

  1. Ultra Capitalism is ready for anything, including, as is often the case, selling what does not belong to it and abusing, in every sense of the word, Natural Resources;
  2. This use de facto depreciates the Natural Resource, probably gradually eliminating it or reducing it to a shambles;
  3. We must reaffirm, each day, the importance of the Commons. And to implement the means to preserve them. Then/and include this protection in different laws or in Binational, multiple or international treaties.


WolfBlur / Pixabay

Let’s give back to everyone what belongs to everyone! New Commons : Intellectual property of City & Regional & Country Brands Names


  1. The New Commons are not necessarily and only Digital.
  2. The Names of Geographical Locations, in the broad sense, cannot be used on Physical Objects WITHOUT payment of ROYALTIES to institutions representing these Locations;
  3. These Royalties are based and calculated on the selling prices to the Final Consumer;
  4. These royalties, for reasons of tax competition and non abuse of dominant position, are regulated by Minimum and Maximum rates;
  5. These rates, and their percentages, are defined by Universal Agreements.
  6. Royalties are paid directly to institutions representing these geographic Organizations.
  7. The exception to the payment of royalties is the actual location of the Production activities of the objects using the name of the locality in the place of Production.
  8. While the counterpart to the protection is a very small amount, per year, covering all classes of trademark registrations.
  9. Which will be paid by the State of each locality to the Continental Organizations authorized to manage and protect trademarks.

The Hyperlinks point on French Articles.


The New Commons are not necessarily and only Digital, the spirit of the New Commons can be applied in many other fields, such as economic and social.

The same is true here of this proposal, which concerns a new approach to the ownership and control of brand names of cities, famous tourist places, regions, countries, communities and continents.

Let us take one of the most famous case studies in this field, at least for France, it is the ownership of the LAGUIOLE brand. Name which refers to the city of LAGUIOLE but also, and especially, to the so-called LAGUIOLE knives, which have a particular shape but whose generic form has never been registered. This makes them known as the city of LAGUIOLE.

Until very recently, this mark did not belong to the city of LAGUIOLE because it had been registered by a person before the City did so. There were many discussions and legal actions to ensure that the City could take back what common sense demanded, namely brand ownership.

Because this appropriation, this control, this ownership should be directly and solely entrusted to the democratic public structure responsible for the place in the broad sense.

It is absolutely ANORMAL (Even if some Courts of Appeal think the opposite, on the basis of old Rights, that it is necessary to make evolve, because yes the Law, it must evolve according to Values chosen by the Community at a moment T. For if the Law does not evolve over time according to the values of a Community, it is called a Custom. And it is something else[Long digression but necessary]))) to use already existing names (Places, Historical Characters) without consent, and/or without having participated in the creation of what we promote and even less, not to live on the territory that we promote in its objects. As Sylvia PINEL, Minister of Handicraft and Trade Sylvia PINEL, pointed out at the time of the judgment mentioned in the previous link (2014), there is “the crucial importance of extending protected geographical indications (PGIs), currently reserved only for agricultural and viticultural products, to manufactured products”. Because the Territories must have complete control over their Names.

It should be noted that the former legal approach was to consider that the commune of Laguiole did not demonstrate that the use of the disputed trademarks “would fall within the scope of the public service missions assigned to the territorial authority, would entail a risk of confusion with its own powers, or would be likely to harm public interests or harm its citizens” (sic). While precisely this is the very basis of the New Rights to be determined and applied. A Territory must always be able to defend its interests and even more so its name and use! This is indeed a Public Service Mission to be carried out.

Let us take the example of the City of Cannes. If you use your favorite search engine and type in the keywords “Cannes Mug”, it is likely that you will collect images of products of this type with an aesthetic, say varied, and which may not be in adequacy with your own perception of good taste, but that is not the subject:-) . How many of these magnificent products were designed and manufactured on the very territory of the City of Cannes? Why should we be allowed to manufacture products for a city other than the one in which we live without having to pay and share the territory from which you benefit, abusively, from its brand image (Culture and geography and Architecture) and its history in the broad sense (Historical events and characters)? This is an obvious fact that is not yet shared by everyone. And yet it will become so.

Because of everything that can be called in the broad sense of Physical by-products (and therefore manufactured in the broad sense), T-Shirts, coffee cups, mugs, placemats, posters, parkas, etc., without making an inventory in the Prevert style, any use should either :
– Generate Royalties to the Community whose Name is used.
– Either everything should be manufactured on the Commune in question or at least on the Agglomeration Community (or its equivalent in non-European countries). There is no room for exceptions because they will always serve as a pretext for misappropriation. Because even if the territories of the cities are well filled and occupied, it will still be possible, including in Monaco, to make room to create the necessary factories. Certainly, it is obvious that the current manufacture of these objects is done in specialized factories with very suitable machines that can change marking (equivalent to flocking for Foot if it can no longer speak to some people) and that the cost of these machines is very high. And that each Territory does not necessarily have the possibility of having an entrepreneur who can invest in these machines with variable configurations. But it is precisely this logic that must be regulated by recovering what is from these globalized factories and allowing local entrepreneurs to make only one type of product (coffee cup or mug or bowl or other etc…) with local marking. By what right can a Chinese entrepreneur use the name of a French city without paying royalties to that city? And of course the opposite is true, a French entrepreneur should not use the French or Chinese names of Beijing or Shanghai.

Once these principles have been established, the necessary remuneration for the use of a Common Good (Name of a “Community”); because any use must give rise to a counterpart (Fees or localization of manufacturing on site); it is now necessary to address the notion of FAIR remuneration. First, the shortcomings of today’s Europe (unbridled competition between countries) have taught us that the question of taxation is a central issue. It is therefore necessary to avoid tax competition between Communities where some would lower the royalty rate to almost zero in order to attract as much as possible the use of their Community Name. Thus, at random, a competition between Dublin and Paris, where Amsterdam and Paris has no meaning and no interest. There is therefore a need for a worldwide minimum royalty rate on the price of the object. The basis of this fee is the price paid by the Final Consumer. And not the Manufacturer’s selling price. This is to avoid, once again, arrangements between friends and invoicing tricks where a company would sell its products for just one cent of Euro or Dollar while the manufacturing costs themselves would cost several Euros. The actual Turnover is paid in the form of retro commissions or false invoices for services between the manufacturer and the first reseller. It will be necessary to supervise and monitor the levy as much as possible to avoid the temptations, or greed, of certain actors. The royalties paid are paid by the last company or organization selling the physical product to individuals. They are paid directly into a bank account in the locality concerned (and not the country concerned, except in the case where the name of the Country is used).

Once these principles have been established, this leads us to talk about a maximum rate of Royalty. With therefore also a Maximum to avoid abuses of dominant position of some cities already better known at the World level such as Paris or New York. It is therefore necessary to cap the maximum rate. The same applies to the minimum rate to avoid tax competition in this area.

To organize these Common Goods, it will also be necessary to automatically make the protection of Names pay by a very symbolic contribution, an annual contribution, to be renewed indefinitely, with a very symbolic cost of around 10$/€ per year (For European countries & US/Canada for example). These $10 cover all the classes that can be filed in trademark protection filing agreements (There is no question of multiplying the payments to cover all possible cases. And therefore to go beyond the framework of the symbolic payment of a very small fee to obtain protection in all countries of the World). The State of the country being responsible and responsible for the payment. It is up to it to recover this money from the municipality or appropriate structure.

Consequently, once the principles have been adopted, it will not be possible to market unapproved objects in all territories. Certainly, it will be possible to answer that each country can have its own legislation, laws or agreements will not necessarily be voted and/or implemented from everywhere. Some countries (who? You have an idea: -)) may even refuse the implementation of this Common Good. Certainly, of course, but first of all, we must at least put in place and apply in the city, or localities, or region, or country, the regulations on this Common Good. And secondly, there is already an international brand management system. It is therefore possible to extend this regulation to the international level, in all countries, by using the international (trade) mechanisms and agreements already in place. We can find 10,000 excuses for not making it work. But let’s focus on the possibility of making it work.

To conclude, in this version of the article (N°1), here is a proposal of (mini) MATRIX to control the rates of Fees:

Rate %
Minimum Royalties 1%
Maximum Royalties 10%

P.S.: Of course, the purpose of the article is not to stigmatize the person (even if everyone is responsible for their actions in relation to the Community) who had registered the LAGUIOLE trademark. Because it has taken advantage, like so many others, of a flaw in a system that is not correct. And it is this system that must be corrected. With a proposal for Local Common Goods operating on a Universal Scale, all the countries of the Planet.

IT consultant connects a network cable into switch in datacenter

Why are the Digital Commons totally immune to the Tragedy of the Commons?

First of all, it is worth recalling what the notion of Tragedy of the Commons is, which was popularized by Heller and Eisenberg, and which is based mainly on the notion of Natural Resources.
Who says Natural Resources means exploitation and therefore, in the long term, the possibility of the end of exploitation. However, in the case of a Commons (badly exploited by a Community, an over Exploitation (Heller and Eisenberg use the term “Overuse”) leads to the disappearance of the Commons, but why this risk does not exist in the Digital Commons? or at least weakly and it can be weakly circumvented.

Because the very essence of the Digital, the possibility of copying WITHOUT depriving the original user of his ORIGINAL, carries in itself another dimension that exceeds the limits and usual structures of physical productions in the real world.
In the real world, what is given to one no longer exists for the other. The transaction of an object is at the expense of the ownership and physical possession of that object.

However, in the Digital era, one can entrust an “object”, i.e. a file (word processing, music, video) or data-information (databases in all forms of content and formats) WITHOUT the “original” being destroyed by the original owner. Thus the two possible limits of a misuse of Commons;
– A “good” exists in a single copy and if I give it to someone else I no longer have it.
– an overuse of a place of resources (Wood, pond, etc…) brings the disappearance of all “goods”
no longer exist in this New World that is the Digital.

And so all the limitations of COMMONS that existed in the Physical World are no longer present in the Digital World. The bad ratings and weaknesses of physical COMMONS are no longer possible in Numerics!
There are only the good sides of COMMONS left:
– Fair Sharing
– Accountability
– Creation-User Action for the exploitation of Commons.

Thus, in evolution, replacement, or joint existence with Capitalism, COMMONS can make it possible to create a New Civilization, based on the creation of and by everyone with equitable distributions (which does not mean egalitarian). This possibility is based on us and our actions. But we can build it, together, now.

Let us also add that to the specificity of the Digital and the Digital Commons: the non-destruction of the original in a transfer; it is necessary to add other factors specific to the Digital as, at this moment:
– either the continuous decrease in the costs of storage equipment such as hard disks,
– or their increases in storage capacity (Note that these two capacities are not linked to the current trend (March 2019) of increasing invoicing prices by major cloud companies 🙁 but this does not reflect the structural trend of falling prices coupled with an increase in capacity).
– We will also add the increase in the speed of information transfer, which can be summarized by the Internet pipes, with the same double characteristic as for storage, increased capacity and structural cost declining in the long term..

There is therefore basically with:
– The very essence of the Digital, the infinite duplication of an “object” without loss of information
– The storage capacity increasing at constant cost
– The transmission capacity increasing at constant cost
The possibility, real and within reach of our actions, of creating, by the Digital COMMONS, a new Civilization reflecting our profound and structuring choices of life.